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CHANCELLOR'S PRIZE SHORT STORY By JOHN H. HOWES JULY, 1942 JULY, 194% Vol. XV-No.3 VOX PUBLISHED BY THE UNDERGRADUATES AND GRADUATES OF UNITED COLLEGE FREEDOM OF SPEECH PRIZE ESSAY " ..:, " :J;;;:;" ~:~L~c;;;',:~. By PETER GORDON WHITE AT • The Right Apparel and Aeeessories For Girls and Men of ~ollegeAge EATON'S has always paid close attention to the needs of college men and college girls ... and never more so than now. Whatever you need in the way of smart wearables, EATON'S is the place to make your choice ... from complete assortments of the smartest styles. And EATON VALUES are decidedly in your favor, too. ~~T. EATON Cc?'MITED A Complete Textbook Service All books used in the University or Affiliated Colleges are regularly kept in stock at the Book Department. Orders for special books are given speedy attention. The Book Department is not a private enterprise; it is owned and operated directly by the University. Prices are always the lowest it is possible to make them. University of Manitoba BOOK DEPARTMENT Broadway Bldg., Osbome St. Arts Bldg., Fort Garry ··vox~~ "VOX" PUBLICATION OF UNITED COLLEGE UNDERGRADUATES AND GRADUATES WINNIPEG MANITOBA Subscription and Advertising Rates on Application No.3, Vol. XV Editor: JOHN FREEMAN Honorary Editor: DR. A. R. M. LOWER Business Manager: EARLE BEATTIE Associate Editor: MINA WOODHEAD July, 1942 Art Editor: Circulation Manager: PETER GORDON WHITE DORIS SCANES PETER GORDON WlllTE Alumni Editor: DEAN A. D. LONGMAN Bulletin Board Editors: MINA WOODHEAD, RON RIDDELL CLASS REPRESENTATIVES Theology: KEN CASH Third Year: KAY ROWLETTE Fourth Year: DORIS SCANES Second Year: RUSS WALLACE First Year: ALEX LYONS Collegiate: BILL GLADSTONE, RON RIDDELL, M. DOUGLAS, ZOE VLASSIS • Contents fJontent8 ARTICLES Page EDITORIAL _ JOHN FREEMAN 2 FREEDOM OF SPEECH PRIZE ESSAy...... . PETER GORDON WHITE ..... 5 PETER GORDON WASHINGTON: NEW CENTRE OF THE WORLD ORBIT DOUG. SUMNER 14 SHORT STORY CHANCELLOR'S PRIZE STORY JOHN H. HOWES 16 POETRY ON THE GOLF LINKS , , PAT HOWARD 3 FRIENDSHIP , : _ : JOHN FREEMAN 3 UNITED COLLEGE STUDENT COUNCIL :,.: :.: _._ . _ ,........ 9 GRADUATES '42 1." • ,................................ 10 COLLEGIATE GRADUATION ...•.......;•......- :. ., :_ c....................... 26 SUB-COMMITTEE REPORTS , : ;:-..~ : _.• :._ : ;........................... 18 IN MEMORIAM SALLY PERRIN .-- _ -:;..: _.:_ _..: ~ 31 ALUMNI NOTES ,- ,.;,..; ; _ _..................... 32 CClqe Two What Are We Fighting For? What: ATe We " WHAT ARE WE FIGHTING FOR? That is the question that has been and should be of great concern to all of us who are engaged in this present struggle. It should not be an issue to be avoided, for it involves the very lives of many of us. To that question there are two general answers. The first claims we are fighting for our very lives against the aggressor; that this is a war of self-defence. The second claims that we are fighting for "The Democratic Way of Life." At first these two answers may seem unrelated, but a closer examination reveals that the second is merely an extension of the first. It claims that we are fighting for far more than our physical lives-for we could save those by becoming ardent Nazis-in fact we are struggling to protect our ideal of society. At this point we must ask, "Just what is this 'ideal' of society?" -Is it a society that, knowing the disruptive influence of liquor on not only itself as a whole but also on the individual family within it, nevertheless condones and encourages its use? This twist of mind has so firmly gripped us that often liquor has had preference over clothes for the refugees since the problem of shipping space arose. Nothing need be said of the damage it can do to a home and its happiness when liquor takes hold of one or both of the parents. Do we put up with this because "people will get it anyway" and "the government needs the income"? Or is it a society that puts up with housing conditions such as exist in parts of our own city of Winnipeg? I speak of small, dirty houses, where there is not adequate sanitation; I speak of houses where more than one family is crowded into insufficient space; I speak of houses with such small yards that the children have to play on the streets ; I speak of houses where the parents are away working all the time and the children have no supervision. Is that what we are trying to save? Is it a society that allows such low wages to its labour that many children have to go out and work for their living before they have received sufficient education for their needs and capacities? Is it a society that can watch the millionaire in his limousine and the delivery boy working at fifteen cents an hour, and yet do nothing? Is it a society that lets food be destroyed to keep the price up while there are undernourished children in it? In short, is it a society with so much of Liberalism's "Tolerance" that men will no longer try to correct evils? In other words, is it society as we see it now, or as we hope to see it, where every man has an opportunity to develop 'to the fullest of his own capacities, and where detriments are put out of the reach of the weak? That is what we must remember when we talk of and plan for Post-War Reconstruction; namely, that we are trying to build a better world than has ever been, so that we may remove the possibility of war. -JOHN FREEMAN Page Two -JOHN * * * POEMS p * o * * E * * M * s * * * * * On the Golf Links ... On tke Golf -Cinks ... The silhouette of trees against a purple sky, The murmur of a green-blue stream, The rapture, wonder, of a single shining star, The melody of crickets, blended with the sigh That comes unbidden with the dream So rudely shattered-for they've missed the last street car. By PAT HOWARD • On Friendship ... On g;.ienJskip . . . A rose, though sweetest ever found, Yet withers and drops headlong to the ground; And snow, though firm and thickly packed, Soon melts and trickles through the earth it cracked; The stream, that flows so deep in Spring, By Summer's end o'er stones has ceased to sing; And music rising from the lark Is silenced by the overwhelming dark. Does Friendship like these lovely things Dissolve away and flee on Time's o By JOHN FREEMAN Page Three ld wings? By JOHN FREEMAN Page Four ff /J Cease to be Fools! Cease Winner of ,the prize estqblished at the University for ]an] essay on The Maintenance of Free Speech in ]C:mada. * * * * By PETER GORDON WHITE "THESE are the times that try men's souls. The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot, will, in this crisis, shrink from . the service of their country: but he that stands it now deserves the love and thanks of every man and woman. Tyranny, like Hell, is not easily conquered; yet we have this consolation with us -the harder the conflict the more glorious the triumph. 'What we attain too cheap we esteem too lightly; it is dearness only that gives everything its value. Heaven knows how to put a proper price upon its goods. and it would be strange indeed if so celestial an article as FREEDOM should not be highly rated. "<D These words by Tom Paine, though written 166 years ago, are strangely applicable to our position today. These are indeed "times that try men's souls," for the cause of freedom, within and without Canada, is in jeopardy. We would be less than worthy of our heritage of freedom if we ceased now to be concerned about such a fundamental necessity to democracy as freedom of speech. Why should the maintenance of free speech be a matter of vital importance to Canadians? The answer to that question lies in an examination and an evaluation of the place of freedom of speech. and its corollary freedoms of assembly and of the press, in our national life. The complete answer will necessitate our asking ourselves, Whence comes this heritage of freedom? and, Upon what bases does our freedom rest? This done we must examine the extent to which our civil liberties are protected by Parliament, and to what degree freedom of speech is affected by wartime regulations. Finally, consideration must be given to the action which may be taken to protect and maintain freedom of speech in Canada. <DThomas Paine, "The Crisis," 1776. ®H. V. Cobb, "Hope, Fate, and Freedom," Ethics Magazine, October, 1941. I-Our Heritage of Freedom "Man's hope is to live; man's fate is to die; man's freedom lies in the transformation of a dead yesterday into a living tomorrow."® From the dawn of history man has struggled for freedom. Yet, in all his long struggle he has never achieved unqualified freedom, and it is doubtful if he ever will, for freedom, like justice . in Plato's ideal Republic, is not an entity having its being in some specific section or phase of man's existence, but is an all-pervading property of our every act of will or choice. The struggle must go on then, for freedom is an ideal of the human race. Throughout history the ideals of liberty have ever had their true worshippers who came as voices crying in the wilderness-the ancient Hebrew prophets, the philosophers of Greece, the Christ Himself, the instigators of the Magna Carta, The Declaration of Independence, the Rights of Man, the Gettysburg Address, and the concept of the League of Nations. With each new expression of man's knowledge of freedom has come the consciousness that freedom is not a lonely isolation-that it is not a case of your rights vs. mine-but rather that it is the ultimate proof that no man liveth unto himself, andno man dieth unto himself, and no man is free unto himself. When the Fathers of Confederation phrased what was to become the British North America Act they established our background in the first clause when they stated that a "Federal Union is desired with a constitution similar in principle to that of the United Kingdom." That the Fathers of Confederation not only knew what they wanted, but that there was also the same knowledge on the part of the people as a whole, must be conceded. for at no time have Canadians Page Five put their conception of their democratic Page Five rights Page FivI into actual words. We have no written Magna Carta like Britain, no Declaration of Independence like the United States, no Declaration of the Rights of Man such as was France's proud possession. Yet, out" unwritten law of freedom is very real to us, and the average Canadian would be shocked at the suggestion that freedom of speech, assembly, and press wer.e not his by virtue of his Canadian citizenship. II-The Bases of Our Freedom In Canada. as in other self-governing dominions and Great Britain, a freely elected Parliament is both the source and guarantee of all civil liberty. The Parliament of Canada and the Provincial Legislatures between them exercise sovereign power in Canada. The Supreme Court of Canada can and does exercise the power to declare Acts of the Provincial Legislatures invalid, if in their opinion such Acts do not agree with our traditional rights. For example, legislation passed by the Alberta Provincial Legislature was recently declared invalid. In the case of the "Accurate News and Information Act," which laid certain restrictions and duties upon the press, one of the reasons given for disallowance was that it was not within the power of a Provincial Legislature to abrogate the right of public debate and suppress traditional forms of such right (in public meeting or through the press) . Civil liberty, however, is not merely the product of a legal arrangement whereby isolated infringements of personal freedom may be contested in the courts. It is much more than that. It is a way of life and of government. It flourishes best when nurtured by private citizens as well as by government. It is endangered, despite, meticulous restraint on government, when private action is tolerant. Legal curbs on government and on individuals are necessary, but in the long run maintenance of freedom de- ' pends upon an appreciation of its value by the entire people, laymen and lawyers, churchmen . and teachers. As Judge Frankfurter has so ably said, "Only a persistent, positive translation of the liberal faith into the thoughts and acts of the community is the real reliance against the unabated temptation to strait-jacket the human mind."@ @Frankfurter. "Law and Politics" (1939). p. 197 @Canadian Census. 1931: Population. 10.376.786. Canadian-born. 8.069.261. or, 80% Canadian nationals. Page Six This means that training in the use of liberty is a vital part of every citizen's orientation in a democracy. It is here that our schools, colleges, universities and churches must play their part. We have moved out of that period when Canada was populated largely by people born in the British Isles and European countries. We now have a population preponderantly born in Canada- c-Canadians.P It is essential, therefore, that our general educational system comprehend the liberties upon which our government is founded, and the values those liberties add to life. The impression upon the minds of the young in words and examples they can understand of the' principles of the Great Charter of, British liberties, would in itself be a grounding in citizenship. . . "We will sell to no one, we will defer to no one, right and justice." A free professorate means a free academic community, the only community in which democratic ideals can grow and function. The importance of the task of ingraining the' ideals of freedom into the habits of our young citizens, enhances' the role of the teacher. For, like the lawyer and the minister. he has special opportunities and special obligations. His devotion to freedom may not < exceed the layman's, but he has the opportunity, would he but grasp it, to acquire special knowledge about civil liberty, and to throw about it his protection. A contemplation of the plight of professional people and the degradation of the great universities and institutes of learning in Nazi-dominated Europe is evidence, if evidence were needed, of the very real and vital necessity of civil liberty for our professional class. If the struggle we are now waging is teaching us anything, surely it is this: that freedom of speech, press, and assembly are first and foremost the concern of our professional classes. We must not make the mistake of considering civil liberty merely a matter for the politician; the moulding of democratic ideals is the best insurance of a democratic government. m-Civil Liberties and Parliament In the struggle of 1914-1918 emergency powers of the most wide-sweeping nature were granted to the Executive (i.e., the Cabinet, legally knqwn as the Governor-General-inCouncil). These wartime laws limiting freedom of speech and press had to be applied to concrete cases by courts and juries. and it was inevitable that there were many cases in which little or no· regard was paid to civil liberties. Perhaps the heaviest cost of the war lay in the suppression of Civil liberty and the undermining in the public mind of a firm sense of its sacredness and importance. No one should underestimate the menace to civil liberty that comes from a diseased public opinion. In' time of war we have two dangers to combat: first. the danger that public officials will administer the regulations in such a way 'that we could be stripped of every right we count ours by virtue of our Citizenship; and second. the danger that an all-advised and intolerant public opinion will not only permit. but demand. the suppression of minority rights. As Robert E. Cushman has pointed out. "This danger to Civil liberty is greater now than during the last war because of our incredibly efficient system of nation-wide communication. It is a sobering thought that to-day the organized forces of intolerance. bent on crushing civil liberties, could make personal contact with almost every person in the nation by means of radio and the neighbourhood movie. These modern stream-lined methods of propaganda' are a potential treat to civil liberty in time of national peril."® Dangers to civil liberties. and in, particular the liberty of speech and association. are not confined to war. After the last war. when the nation had a right to expect that Emergency' Powers granted to the Executive would be legally repealed. that course was not followed. For the most part the regulations were allowed to lie dormant. but there were some evidences that they were used to cover attempts to limit free speech. In the struggle that is constantly being waged between organized Capital and organized Labor. there is the ever-present danger that guarantees against arbitrary arrest. imprisonment. unreasonable searches, seizures of documents, and right of assembly. will be ignored or forgotten. Then again. there is always the danger that the tendency (which seems to exist in every Government) to see "revolution" in every labor dispute that develops into a strike. is a potential threat to all civil liberties. The ill-famed Section ®Robert E. Cushman. "Safeguarding our Civil Liberties," Public Affairs Pamphlet No. 43. 98 which was added to the Criminal Code in 1919 is the classic example of this danger. Indeed, though it was repealed in 1936, Section 98 is regarded by many as the forerunner of and inspiration of arbitrary and repressive legislation such as the Quebec "Padlock Law." Though it was avowedly and specifically aimed at Communist organizations. Section 98 went far beyond being merely a curb on the advocacy of violence as a means of political change. It laid the axe to the root of personal liberty of the subject. No longer did the police have to obtain a warrant in order to enter and search a building. No longer did the police have to prove guilt. the onus of proof of innocence was upon the persons charged. An organization which "proposed" or "defended" violence as a means of political or economic change was held to be an' "unlawful" organization, and the maximum penalty of twenty years in prison could be inflicted on any person for being a member of such an organization. Not only that. the police were not required to produce proof of membership-s-mere presence at a meeting of what had been declared an "unlawful" organization was considered sufficient to establish membership. In spite of the widespread resentment against this regulation. convictions were obtained under it from 1919 until 1921. The Liberal Government made four attempts to have it repealed which were blocked by the Senate. The regulations then lay dormant for nearly nine years. and agitation for repeal died down. But the . danger of having such laws on the Statute Books came forcibly before the public again in 1930, when the Bennett Government revived and made use of Section 98 in a drive against Communists. The very severity of the methods of enforcement of the regulations defeated its own purpose. for public opinion became sufficiently aroused to secure repeal by the Liberal Government in 1936. It is worthy of note that a law such as this. which was against all British traditions of freedom of speech. press. association, and presumption of innocence. should have remained for seventeen years' the law of Canada, and would doubtless still be on the Statute Books if an alarmed citizenry had not effectively made its voice heard. Page Seven No discussion of the cause of Free Speech in Canada could be complete without some consideration of the effect of laws such as the "Padlock Law" of Quebec. Here again we have the case of a law being passed supposedly to correct a certain dangerous condition. but which is so vague in its terms. so ambiguous in its definitions. that it is a most dangerous instrument to place in the hands of any government. The "Padlock Law" of Quebec. passed in 1937. made it illegal to use. or allow to be used. any house for the propagation of Bolshevism or Communism. and the penalty was the closing. or "padlocking" of the house for one year. Other provisions made it illegal to print. publish. or distribute any literature propagating Communism or Bolshevism. and penalties included fines and imprisonment. for a period of from three months to one year. In the Bill the terms Communism and Bolshevism are not properly defined. and it is therefore impossible to argue as a defence that utterances or printed matter are not Communistic or Bolshevistic if the authorities so declare them. The large number of raids (over 100 in less than two years) made under this Act. caused protests to be made not only in Quebec. but in all parts of Canada. by individuals and associations on the alert to maintain free speech.. The constitutionality of the Act was tested in the Superior Court of Quebec. in May. 1939, and upheld. Since then there has been a change in provincial politics in Quebec. and the Act has fallen into disuse. The potential danger to our fundamental democratic rights. however. will remain.as long as the Act remains on the Statute Books of Quebec. and agitation for its repeal should continue. Necessity makes strange bedfellows. and the position in which we now find ourselves ,:ith regard to Communistic Russia puts regulanons such as are embodied in the "Padlock Law." and in certain sections of the Defence of Canada Regulations (which we will examine later) • in a rather different light to that in which they appeared prior to Russia's magnificent stand against Germany. It is not consistent to admit (as we must admit) our great indebtedness to Russia. in that for the time being she is standing between our master foe. Germany. and us. and at the same time continue to throw the whole force of the law against individuals simply for being Communists. if we can prove no other Page Eight crime against them. Since Russia has proved PrJ,. Eight such a valuable ally it has become politic to cultivate her friendship. arid the existence of these Regulations can hardly be conducive to friendly relations. The time would therefore appear to be particularly opportune to advocate their repeal. In Canada to-day we are being governed by what has become generally. and perhaps jocularly, referred to as our "stream-lined form of government." i.e.• Orders-in-Council. It is not surprising that there has arisen a sincere. and in the widest sense of the word. patriotic volume of opinion that views with considerable alarm the extent to which Parliament has abrogated its powers. There is no doubt, that seriousminded people in all parts of Canada share the general apprehension that the Order-in-Council method of government. without the safeguard 'of reference of its acts to Parliament within a reasonable period. is dangerous. Consequently we have "Civil Liberties Associations" and "Citizens' Groups" in all parts of the country asking that the Defence of Canada Regulations and the Censorship Regulations should be submitted to constant revision by Parliamentary committees. It is to these alert and public-spirited bodies that we owe such revisions as have been made in the Regulations. It is a matter for congratulation that Canadians. irrespective of political affiliatians, have united in standing up for the preservation of rights which they feel are justly theirs. The Defence of Canada Regulations have now been amended and consolidated. and the said consolidation was concurred in by the House of Commons on the 9th of June. 1941. The new. or rather amended. Regulations came into effect on the 28th of July. 1941. Let us now consider how the cause of free speech stands under the Regulations. IV-Freedom of Speech and the Defence of Canada Regulations It is admitted. that in time of w,ar the Gov-ernment is fully entitled to take such measures as seem to be necessary for the prosecution of the war. and the fullest possible protection of the nation against foes without and "fifth columnists." saboteurs. traitors. and enemy agents within. Any Government that neglected to take to itself all reasonable authority to deal with the overwhelming emergency created by a state of war would be doing less than its clear duty. 'Continued on page 27) JAMES TAYLOR Social Chairman MARSHALL A. CROWE Treasurer HARRY S. CROWE Senior Stick JEAN LEONORA BOND Lady Stick STEFAN BJARNASON Secretary DOUGLAS WHITTLE President of Athletics WALLACE MAURER President of Debating DORA BROWN Junior Women’s Ass’n Rep. SIDNEY R. VINCENT Senior U.M.S.U. Rep. P. G. WHITE Junior U.M.S.U. Rep. FRANCES ZEGIL Co-ed Representative WILLIAM DAVIS President of Theology DOUGLAS SUMNER President of Men’s Club COLIN McGILLIVRAY President of Collegiate MARGARET A. BARAGER President of Dramatics DAVID McKEE President of First Year JOHN H. HOWES President of Third Year W. ROBERT GORDON Additional Rep. of Third Year DEAN RAMSEY President of Fourth Year JIM STRUTHERS Additional Rep. of Fourth Year GEORGE FREEMAN Editor of “Vox” AUDREY FRIDFINNSON Brown and Gold Rep. UNITED Student Council Page Nine GRADUATES • i1 • .. •• • W, •••••••• ..•. • 1941-42 1 9 4 1 • •• • • Ow 4 2 • • Q • • • CROWE, HARRY S. Winnipeg, Man. Harry takes a vital interest in all activities in the College and the University, but he is especially interested in debating and writing for The Manitoban. He is our Senior Stick this year and has filled the position of Junior U.M.S.U. rep., treasurer of Debating Union, and president of His-tory Club. ' BEAMISH, VIVIAN JANET Shoal Lake, Man. A good athlete and mathematician, Vivian was our class, athletic rep. this year. She excels in curling and is a great enthusiast in bowling. Education will gain a good sport and a hard worker when she enters the faculty next year. BURTON, BARBARA A. Sioux Lookout, Onto Our "intellectual" geni\ls, Barb has gone through her general course on Evelyn MacKay and Robert Bruce Scholarships. Her interests centre mainly on the S.C.M. and swimming. Barbara intends to go on to Theology. CORNER, MARGUERITE E. Fort William, Onto Marg. is graduating both in Arts and Theolol':Y. Interests are the S.C.M., the Theological Society ani Debating. She has been a W.M.S. miss·ionary for the, past few years and intends to continue in this kind of work. DICKSON, E. IRENE J. Winnipeg, Ma.n. Irene played hockey in her sophomore year, then became a studious language pupil, joining the French Club, and majoring in French and Latin. She plans to take Education at the University of Toronto next year and in the distant and hazy future wants to become an anthor of famous books. DRYDEN, CHARLES HARVEY Winnipeg, Man. Quiet and industrious, Harvey is an example for "would-be" newspapermen. Starting as sports reporter, Harvey worked his way up to the po&ition of managing editor and finally editor-in-chief of "Oanada's Other Great Newspaper." Besides this he is a correspondent for the Tribune. Lsst year he was also president of Athletics. • • • • • • + • Page Ten • • + • BOND, JEAN LEONORA Winnipeg, Man. Jean is the charming Lady Stick of our College. She is taking a general course, and is very active in social aff8ir8~' being at one time her class social rep. She has also served as her class vice-president and has held the same position on the S.C.M. Jean hopes to take post-graduate work in Social Science. BEATTIE, EARLE JAMES Winnipeg, Man. A friendlY chap, Earle has been with us in 1941 and 1942 classes. Editor and business manager of Vox, he has won the Chancellor'&prize for the Short Story, and was author of the musical comedy "You Can't Beat Fun." Took his Sabbitical year in Val d'Or. Member of the English . and History Clubs. CAMPBELL, WILLIAM F. CAMPBEIJ" WILLIAM Winnipeg, Man. Blond, Quiet and humorous, his pas-sian is music. He has been a Glee Club principal in every operetta produced since 1938 to the present year. The Glee Olub owes much to Bill and he is working hard as its president this year. ' CURRIE, ELAINE Winnipeg, Man. Full of pep and ideas, Elaine, as eonvene'r, is responsible for the success of this year" s cooed social program. She is taking a general course and is a Diember of the Hi&tory and English Clubs. One of our Macalester-Unlt.ed conference delegates. DOWNIE, DAVID A. Winnipeg, Man. Always looking for $1.50 but ,never finding it, he takes consolation in sports and especially curling. Dave is also a student of Economics and History on the side. This year he was A.B.O. rep., convener of United Ourling and chairman of the Athletics Reward Committee. Was a "rapporteur" at the Macalester conference. FAULKNER, PATRICIA R. Winnipeg, Man. This mademoiselle has won the John MacKay scholarship and the La Verendrye prize for Oral French. She i& a member of the French Club, being especially interested in this subject in which she is majoring. She is also a bowling enthusiast and a, Macalester-United conference delegate. She plans to take Education next year. • •• •• • + • ... ... GRADUATES • • 1941-42 1 9 4 1 . . 4 2 FILIP, NESTOR Transcona, Man. Claims to be an authority on the theatre, and especially the one on the corner. He curls and also plays hockey. Pays his fees in order to major in Mathematics, also takes· Actuarial Science III. He plans to become one of those chartered accountants. FRASER, ARTHUR M. .// Winnipeg, Man. Possesses outstanding musical ability and has done much to foster music on the campus. Has been assfstant director of the U. Symphony Orchestra since 1939; he helped organize the U. Dance Band and was director of the University Band for three years. This· year he is chairman of Public Relations '(U.M.S.U.). HARLAND, HARRY GORDON Treherne, Man. i-: Started the year- as presddent of Debating, but took on other responsibilities and had to withdraw. He still takes a keen interest in debating and is a singer of repute. He was a capable secretary for the Macalester-United conference. A sterling member of the English and History Clubs, he took unto himself a wife at Ohr-istmas. KINNEY, E. MAY St. Vital, Ma.n. Taking a general course, Mae is also a member of the French Club. ,Her ability as a debatrng rep. for the graduating class should stand her in good stead for her nrofession-teaching. She also has many "outside" interests. LAUDER, MAVIS JEAN Winnipeg, Man. Class viee-president for this year, she is aetive in dramatic and music cireles. She has been a member of the University operatic cast for three years· and plans to take Education next year. MAURER, A. E. WALLACE Winnipeg, Ma.n. Celebrated wit of class "42." Stole the show at the Macalester conferenee as a "rapporteur." President of Debating. Is a History Club stalwart, secretary-treasurer of Fourth Year, and treasurer of Athletics. A member of the S.C.M. Cabinet. Wally is bashfnl, FOWLER, GEORGE R. Baldur, Ma.n. 'Came in 1940 from the Faeulty of Arts. where he played on championship hockey 'and curling teams. At United he continued his active part in athletics, being convener of hockey this year. A curler of' some repute, he is noted for having attended classes. Philosophy: "Laugh and the world laughs with you." GLASER, LIONEL F. Roland, Man. Has a very good singing voice-sang in the Glee Club "Pinllfore" and "Ruddigore." His interests centre in debating, curling and tennis. He majors in Latin and next year plans to ascend to the heights of Edueation. ISENBERG, MINNIE ISENBERG. MINNIE Winnipeg, Man. Minnie is famous for her marvellous sense Qf humor. "You Can't Beat Fun," in which she was cast, is certainly her motto. Another Macalester-United delegate, she too. is a member of the French Club. Her favorite sport seems to be bowling. KOBRINSKY, EDITH Winnipeg, Man. Taking a general course, she belongs to the Music Club. Edith has been active in dramatics, specializing in comedian roles A versatile lass, she is also a member of the Winnipeg Sehool of Art. She will eith·er go into nursing or the businass world. MacKNIGHT, HARRIET ELEANOR Shoal Lake, Ma.n. Eleanor has. a lovely singing voice. Her chief interests are bowling and curling being at one time 8 member of the win: fling team in the Women's Inter-faeulty Curling League. She is taking a, general course and plans to take up secretarial work. NEWTON, FRANK GILCHRIST Roblin, Ma.n. The enthusiastie curler who represented United in the Inter-faculty. Attends classes in Latin, Phil., Psyeh., and Soc., and hopes to enter Law next year. Newt. is a quiet, serious type, especially on the parade floor. . . ... . .... • •••••> • • • • ••• + •• • •••••••• Page Eleven GRADUATES • • 1941-42 1 9 4 1 ....... .; .... OLAND, RAMONA C. M. Winnipeg, Man. Noted for her enthusiasm and willtngnesa to work for every committee in the Oollege, she has been Director of Make·up for Dramatic" and secretary·treasurer of the Co-ed Council during the past term. Ramona is especially interested in the Music and English Clubs. She plans to go in for secretarial work. PATTERSON, ELIZABETH B. Gilbert Plains, Man. Versatile ,Elizabeth is majoring in Maths., has won the Bousset Prize in French, yet finds time to bowl and curl. She is also interested in music. Capable a .. she has shown herself to be, we feel certsin she'll be a success in the insurance world sbe . has chosen to enter. l'O POWLES ES,BRETTA ISABELLA Semans, Sask. Taking a general course, she is exceptionally active and interested in athletics. Bretta is a graduate physical tralning in.. tructor from, the Margaret Eaton School of Toronto. After graduation from the College, she intends to continue in this line of work. RAMSEY. DEAN PRESTON Portage la Prairie, Man. Ha.. an infectious grin, also a way with women. Attends to the social side of life, secretary of the Social Committee and social rep., being two of his social positions. President of Fourth Year, chairman of the Student Judiciary Senate and presi· dent of the Resident House Committee are a few other positions he has held. He has II leaning towards Lllw. ROBERTS, FREDERICK JOHN Winnipeg, Man. Very busy with outside work. He is a Boys' Worker and has a field the year round. Fred intends to enter Theology next year. He was Dramatic rep. last year and attended both' the History Club and the S.C.M. He leave an excellent record behind him. SHEPHERD, BETH J. Gilbert Plains, Man. Beth is taking a general course. She is especially interested in vocational guid· ance. Beth is truly ambitious, seen from the fact that she took Second and Third Years at Summer School. She now plans to return to teaching. . . . .. Page Twelve PAKNIS, WALDEMAR P AKNIS, WALDEMAR Winnipeg, Man. They call him "Joe." An addict of pingpong. He is majoring in Maths. and also takes Actuarial Science. Plans to study at the Columbus School of Business. for his M.Sc. degree. Seems ambitious. PECK, MARJORIE Winnipeg. Man, Taking 8 general course, Marjorie has proven herself to be a good scholar, winning the John Humphrey Graham, the Isbister and the Andrew B. Baird scholarships. She is a member of the English Club, president of the S.C.M. at the College, and the conductor and the backbone of the Chapel Choir. Marjorie intends to enter the field of religious education work. PRATT, DONALD ERNEST Winnipeg, Man. The man with the cultured voice. An accomplished violinist, he was concert master of the Student Symphony. For two years he has been president of the U.C. Music Club. He also fills the position of music critic for The Manitoban. His other actio vities are the English Club and Debating. ROBERTS, ALBERT WILLIAM St. Ja.mes, Man. Majors in Economics, also takes Maths, and ·Government. Conscientious worker, but a cheerful soul, Favorite pastime is music and he is quite an adept at playing tlte piano. Plans to enter Law or Education. eUR SCURFIELD FIELD, WILLIAM EDWARD Clearwater, Man. An enthusiastic curler, he won the United schedule last year. He was bowling conTener and social rep. this year, also playing senior hockey. He is majoring.in Mathematics. Bill i.. the happy-go-lucky type, never worries about anything and appreciates humor. STRUTHERS, JAMES ALFRED MacGregor, Man. Leader of the opposition in U.C. Parlia· ment, which has since been outlawed (no reDection on Jim). Took an active part in Debating and worked hard for the Dramatic production las·t year. Believes the pen is mightier than the sword. Has writ· ten numerous articles for Vox and The Manitoban. Rep. to the U.C. Council last year. . . . . GRADUATES • + ••••• +- ...•, . • 1 9 4 1 ... 4 2 SUMNER, DOUGLAS BURRIS Virden, Man. Doug really "gets around" -is- interested in everything; says women are his special joy. President of Third Year, news editor' of The Manitoban, C.U.P. editor, president of Men's Club-so reads Doug's year. Popular with both sexes. Never misses an Ena;lish or Hi..tory Club. His ambitiou I . . . Don't be funny. TUNSTALL, DOUGLAS Winnipeg, Man. A "culture" vulture. His chief delight is music, especially criticising. Staunch member of the Music Club for the past two years,. He is majoring in English and tops it off with French and Philosophy. Noted for his voluminous English papers. WELLS, GEOFFREY C. H. Winnipei, Man. Very non-committal, his friends find him very easy to get along with. Doesn't seem to have a care in the world. Interested in music. Attended St. John's at one time and takes his English at St. Paul's this year. ZEGIL, FRANCES OLIVE Selkirk, Man. "The Commerce Man's. Delight." A very active and able rep., Frances has been Vice-Stick of the Co-eds" and this year :filled the positions of Senior Cooed rep. to Council, Class Dramatics rep. and College Bowling rep. Frances plans to go in for secretarial work. DAVIS, WILLIAM T. Winnipeg, Man. The outstanding track man of United for the past five years. Was on the Varsity track team and was president of United Athletics in 1940. Interests also are singing and debating. President of Theology this year. Plans to enter aetive pastorate in Southern Manitoba. THOMPSON, ZILLAH H. Winnipeg, Man. General course. Interested in humans and their pasts, she is naturally keen on the study of Greek civilization. She belongs to the Psychology Club and plans to go in for Archaeology. WADGE, GRACE MURLEY Winnipeg, Man. General course. I 'Petit& and sweet,'· Grace has WOn the friendship and affection of many in the College. She is especially interested in English and History_ ZABOLOTNY, WALTER Winnipeg, Man. The "he man" of the class of '42. Takes a great deal of interest in sports activities, especially soccer, basketball and swimming. His course includes History, Economic and Government. Plans to return to teaching. THEOLOGY MacDONALD, JOHN Ninette, Man. Graduated in Arts from United Oollege in 1940. Served in mission fields in rural Manitoba and Saskatchewan. For the past three years has been at MacLean Mission. Expect.. to be ordained and aeoept a pastoral charge this summer. • • + •• • • '0 ••••••••••• + •••••••••••••••••• • • Page Thirteen The World Orbit rld Orbit WASHINGTON New Centre of • • By D. B. SUMNER THE IMPLICATION of the above title will not be accepted with good grace by Americans like Senators Nye, Vandenburg, Wheeler, or Shipstead or by certain Torontonians. However, I feel that the slow tendency in the last century of American foreign policy has been towards a gradual assumption of the powers expected of the leading world nation and towards an international scale of values. It has most certainly deviated from the traditional isolation of the founding fathers to a kind of forced economic and technical intervention policy. It is this swing from isolationist sentiments that I will dwell on at length later on in my discourse. The Japanese aggression, of course, ended this swing by pushing it through the last 3590 of its orbit in one day, December 7th, 1941. The United States is the most wealthy country in the world as far as natural resources and industry are concerned and it has a great steel industry which is an imperative prerequisite for any great nation. It has since the last war b~come a creditor nation for the whole world trade. With the powers in Europe balancing off against each other, indeed I must say the powers of the rest of the world, balancing off against each other, what is more natural than for the nation which holds what is seemingly the deciding weight to become the centre of world politics? What nation with its' high standard of living, its idealistic government, and its preponderant economic wealth but the United States could fill this post? The centre of gravity in world politics has slowly but surely moved from the British Empire to the United States of America. It is this change in the centre of political gravity, backed up by the economic gravitational point already there, which has made U.S. the new centre of the world orbit. In the first place it is clear that U.S. has been trying to pursue three different foreign Page Fourteen policies. There is one for European affairs, another for Western Hemisphere affairs, and still another for the Far Eastern affairs. This is all . lovely and cut and dried except the policies sometimes conflict. A policy of non-intervention in the European scene doesn't apply to the Far East where a policy bordering on intervention is pursued. Of course, we have the "good neighbor" policy in the Western Hemisphere and everything must smooth itself out here. As has been seen in many cases, this apparent contradition in U.S. policy makes other nations wonder if the U.S. policy is just a hit and miss type or whether it is merely a clever cover-up of her real aims. There have in the main been four policies which the United States has adhered to: (1) the Open Door Policy; (2) the Monroe Doctrine: (3) Isolationism; (4) Freedom of the Seas. Of first importance to American minds is the necessity for Hemisphere Defence and the furtherance of the "Good Neighbor Policy" of President Roosevelt. After the War for Independence fought with George III, the colonies of course founded their policy of peace. They wished peace and security to develop the new nation which they envisaged. They had fought for independence and they were going to keep their independence. It was in 1823 that President Monroe gave his speech which was to become known by future generations as the Monroe Doctrine. It was prompted by a threat to the Spanish colonies from the Holy Alliance. Monroe saw that if the colonies of European nations were to be disturbed every time there was a change on the European map that there would be eternal struggle and unrest in the New WorId as weII as the Old. The pertinent clause in this doctrine was stated thusly, " ... the American continents· by the free and independent condition which they have assumed and maintain, are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers." ThiS'; of course, didn't refer to colonization already under way but was a kind of freezing action on the American part. They had many incidents to prove its necessity in the future and they cited incidents like (a) the British attempt in 1844 to persuade Texas against joining the Union, (b) the British intrigues to prevent American domination of the Isthmus and the Caribbean, (c) the French invasion of Mexico during the Civil War. All these, the Americans were claiming, justified such a doctrine. Internal affairs kept the Americans busy during these times and finally culminated in the Civil War. After the Civil War America, of course, began to advance in leaps and bounds aSI a nation. In 1867 she bought Alaska as a playground forher exuberant financiers and allowed them free reign there until 1912. The South American and Latin American countries were, of course, for some time relatively unimportant because of their economic significance. As long as there was no foreign intervention, U.S. was content. A former Secretary of State, Blaine, had tried to sell them the slogan of "America for the Americans" and thus promote hemisphere solidarity. However, it now appeared that it was "America for the United States." This distrust of American offers has been maintained. even to this day and until the late 1930's the Pan-American Union was merely another branch of the American Department of State to many of the Latin American countries. The Spanish-American war in 1898 had its evil effects on relations also. Many of the smaller countries looked upon it as merely part of a feared U.S. expansion policy and had none but dark thoughts about it. When Theodore Roosevelt came into power at the turn of the century the Latin Americans were certainly against any co-operation with U.S. His corollary to the Monroe Doctrine, which has been called "the big stick policy," was a great blow to their national sovereignty. He was a sabre-rattler, an expansionist, and an old school statesman who believed in acting first and explaining later. In a Congressional message on December Znd, 1904, he came out. boldly and firmly in favor of U.S. being a policeman in the Western Hemisphere. He said about this, "If a nation shows that it knows how to act with reasonable efficiency and de-cency In social and 'political matters, if it keeps order and pays its obligations, it need fear no interference from the United States. Chronic wrong-doing, or an impotence which results in a general loosening of the ties of civilized society. may in America, or elsewhere, ultimately require intervention by some civilized nation, and in the Western Hemisphere the adherence of the United States to the Monroe Doctrine may force the United States, however reluctantly, in flagrant cases of such wrong-doing or impotence, to the exercise of an international police force." He enlarged this in 1905, when Santo Domingo was taken over, to include protection of the interests of American citizens in foreign countries. This was certainly a radical departure from 'any non-intervention attitude. but was characteristic of Rooseveltian policy. Speaking before a Methodist Conference, Roosevelt claimed that U.S. must take up the white man's burden and bring civilization to the heathen. This may have satisfied ministers of the Gospel but it didn't satisfy the Latin Americans. for Haiti, Salvador, Porto Rico, Nicaragua, and Honduras were all taken over for the same economic reasons by Roosevelt and his successor, Taft. The Platt amendment, which Congress had passed after the Cuban war with Spain, was not repealed until 1934. This virtually had given U.S. power to interfere any time it felt that U.S. capital was in danger. The feeling improved somewhat when President Wilson refused to intervene in Mexico and with President Hoover's Goodwill Tour In 1928. Pan-Americanism had become subject of constant effort on the part of U.S. As early as 1826 Simon Bolivar had called a Conference in Panama to set up a federation to preserve peace. In 1889 Secretary of State Blaine had called another Conference in Washington to try and increase trade. In 1910 at Buenos Aires was set up the Pan-American Union Bureau, which was to be permanent. Contracting this with U.S. action the other members naturally looked upon it as merely a branch of the U.S. State Department. In 1923 at Santiago relations were even more strained because of two reasons: (a) the American policy of creating an American lake out of the Caribbean, (b) the way the U.S. delegates monopolized the discussion-they effectively smoth- (Continued on page 22) , Page Fifteen ekancellor's Prize Skort Storlj . . . THEASS~ WHEN you reached the street it was not THE ASSAULT the bitter, sombre night your whole being cried out for. You were aware of nothing grotesque or remarkable in the atmo-sphere or in the normal flux of humanity working out its way. The only lightning was the Chancellor's Prize Short Story ... By John H. Howes blaze of giant neons monotonously flashing their messages. Even these silently blinked out one by one and everywhere the noises of the city became subdued as a damp darkness smothered the lights and stifled the writhing form beneath it like a slowly descending gas cloud. Cars skirted by, their wet tires hissing to the pavement. Soon you would hear no sounds but a far-off tram and perhaps the night-distorted voices of late revellers. It was damp, a clinging damp that, curiously, made you feel warm. Somehow you felt apart from everything, as though all else, everything, was cold and damp and dead but you were alive and warm. And peering through the charged air, a misty moon stared like a great bleary eye. , Then, as you passed the lighted stores, you felt different and your mind grasped for humanity. Your warmth and the flush of your skin sprang from other forces. sprang to the surface of your body because you knew life stirred inside the shops. and you knew you were part of it. As more neons winked out and the lights dimmed in the shops the thought struck you suddenly that it must be very late. , Your watch. You tried awkwardly to brush . up the sleeve of your coat to see, but the sleeve kept slipping down. When you did find it the face was smashed and the hands twisted like the arms of a frozen corpse. You remembered the strange fascination that had gripped out when you beheld pictures of the Russian front in winter, .the half-buried bodies of frozen fighters with arms stretched and twisted every way. The hands of your watch reminded you of that. But you still wondered how old or young the new day was. Your feet began to feel uncomfortable and your toes stuck together in their stiff coldn~ss. You stopped to wriggle them, standing first on one foot and then the other, but it was no use. You wondered again what time it was and in one of the restaurant windows you saw a waitress frying potato chips and you stopped for a moment to see if she wore a watch. She did not. You were only conscious of bubbling grease and Page Sixteen steaming potatoes in a blackened strainer; and you noticed a wedding ring on her finger and when she accidentally poked a long fingernail into a slice of potato you saw a ring of black under the nail. For an instant you gazed at it; then you looked up to see a fine-looking girl, a really beautiful healthy girl with soft flawless cheeks. You hesitated a moment longer, puzzled. until a hardened look across her eyes stared you along your way. When you are alone and know there is no one hinged to your soul, the emptiness strikes you. It is so very simple then, for in your mind no halftones and colors blend; only sharp blacks and whites impose themselves upon your thoughts. No contours abound; only dreary flatness planed smooth by some master craftsman. When you are alone the transformation blurs out all gradation and shades of detail and choice becomes meaningless. The hurt streams like an ascending meteor to the pinnacle of your mind and shines luminously there like a crystal pearl. All else falls off into the shade of oblivion. You fought against the grey hollow of despondency that was spreading through you. A milk wagon lumbered past. drawn by big. aged horses and the driver looked tired and sleepy. Surely it was not that late; surely you had not been walking four hours. No, the war industries dictated strange upheavals in routine and this explanation satisfied you. Time was no essence for you. The space 'of living between now and some future event fused into a meaningless existence fashioned by the numbing void of hurt, hurt that would not shrink away, but only throb into your being and finally entrench itself. Again the atmosphere prompted you to . wonder how late it was; you thought it must be very late. You started to pull at the sleeve of your coat but then you remembered that the face of your watch was shattered and the hands twisted. 1, , f hort StorJj . . . 13lJ Jokn 3£. 3fowes The Assault ASSAULT lain latent in your memory like so many forgotten things. 'Theemptiness must have disturbed it to driving life for you remembered it now more than ever. You wondered then what every chastened man must; you wondered if you were losing your mind. Or was it that at this time some force conspired to drive away clear thoughts that remorse and despair might not become your masters. Perhaps it was some god. At once you knew that now you could think clearly and the realization of it frightened you. Snatches of clarity had only confused you; this was the clean sting of it. Again the wind picked at your face, but it did not matt~r now. Your walk became less sure and you staggered like a drunken man. An agony burned and seared in you, and soon you wanted to weep and you did and there was nothing but grief for you. You felt as though you could no longer walk. You were sobbing quietly and the anguish melted your fibres of strength. You slumped down onto the curb against a cold steel lamppost. Your head dropped forward and you just sat there sobbing and you knew it must be very late and everything seemed to be silent. In a little while someone came along the sidewalk, for you could hear the shuffle of feet. They seemed to be unsteady. Then across the night air a furred voice cut raucously into the quiet like a tank bludgeoning through awheatfield. The voice angered you, for it broke into the private of your sadness. Roughly the voice called out, Hello brother, hello brother, hello brother, repeating it and running the words together, hellobrotha, hellobrotha; then someone ·clapped you on the back and said hava ceegar, brother, hava ceegar. And you knew he was drunk and tears ran down your face, and then again, hava ceegar brotha a boy, hava ceegar a boy, it's a beautiful boy brotha-why ain't you laughing, eh? Why ain't you? His eyes peered at you and you thought it must be very painful to focus through those red eyes. Then again hava ceegar brotha a boy, it's a beautiful boy-don't understand it's a ceegar ... his voice trailed off as he belched like the crack of a pistol. . You could feel the rage rising in you and your body bristled with tenseness. You wanted to hit him and destroy him and break his face. (Continued on page 32) Where had it been broken? you wondered; perhaps as you collided with the man in the corridor, or perhaps as you tripped on the matting and fell against the stone rail of the steps; yes, perhaps that was it, It puzzled you. The little man in the corner shop could fix it, of course, and he 'did not charge much. He could fix it all right. And he only charged about half the ordinary and he had fixed Diane's. . . , God, how it hit you. The wave of loneliness washed over you again. It was torture to try to steady the swirling mass of uncomprehension. A hundred suggestions and half-suggestions flooded your mind and you knew they waited for you to resolve them into some pattern of explanation, but you could not. The loneliness became barrenness and it was as if the ideas masqueraded and you could tell the costumes apart but distinguish none of them. You felt that you wanted to tear off the masks and uproot the frustration of it, that you might understand and know. You asked the skies and the living life of humanity what man. may grasp and know, and feel the warm radiance of it. Perhaps you asked only yourself for all seemed integrated in the individual. But you felt that there is nothing to know. Man cannot explain the tears of things. Though he live forever. yet will he gaze toward the heavens with querulous eyes, helpless, alone, unknowing. You wanted to be calm and deliberate but somehow it was too difficult. Perhaps unreality pushed reality aside. You tried desperately to shake away the mist that distorted everything. You groped for clarity but it eluded you. In your youth, not so many years before, you reflected, one statement had struck you a hammerblow. It had slowed you, for love was stirring in you then. "When two people love each other there can be no happy ending," the thought went; and you remembered it as a whole: here was clarity. It had riveted itself to you for weeks after; the simple fragment had / t and Chancellor's Prize Short Story ... By John H. Howes and nail lack t it; rl. a less led, you Page Seventeen P6ge SUB-COMMITTEE REPORTS SUB ........................................................................... " "Vox" Annual Report rvox" GfnnuaL J(eport Another college year has passed, and all too quickly to leave time to attend to such traditionally slow-moving ventures as Vox publications. Yes, at last it has come time to say farewell to all of you on behalf of the Vox staff for the last time. Once more the final issue will be found unique. unique in that no mention is made of the "Fourth Year Wildcats" either in their chosen area of athletic achievement or, in their side-line of academic effort. Following up the advice of last year's most worthy editor. M. J. V. Shaver. Council saw fit to reduce Vox production by one issue. so that now we bring you the third and final issue. which we dedicate to the graduates. As usual it 'is only a matter of weeks late in appearance: We have kept inside our budget and yet have tried hard to make Vox a better magazine than ever. We have also kept in touch with the Debating Society Report J. Freeman • Alumni Association. We have received no criticism whatever. nor yet any praise. We have put out a book for UNITED.! There have been a few changes on the staff for this last .issue due to unavoidable circumstances. George Freeman. your editor. has joined the Air Force and passed the worry on to his "little" brother. I am assured, however. that he received fullco-operation from his supporting staff. especially Mr. Earle Beattie. the business manager. At this point we wish to express our gratitude to the staff for this co-operation. We must also commend 'the printer for his patience and hard work in making this book possible. To the oncoming editor. Mr. John Howes. we throw the torch and assure him of the fullest possible moral support. Farewell. J. FREEMAN. This report is intended to be a categorical listing of achievements. an appraisal. and a plea -in short; much ado about not very much. ) The Debating Society Executive and Coun-cil prepared and launched a varied program of activities involving and/or implicating a surprisingly substantial proportion of the College population. The regular schedule of .debates ,among all years and classes in the College began with the traditional Faculty-Student Debate and concluded with the Final Debate between Theology and First Year. won by the latter team. composed of Don McClaren and John Graham-who were presented with the Debating Cup. There were one or two debates which were noteworthy from the point of view of subject matter. debating technique and style. and student attendance and participation in discussion. There also emerged. especially from Junior Division. several persons who should develop into accomplished debaters. Debating outside of the College. involving United debaters. included an Interfaculty debate at the Scottish Literary Society. won by the Page Eighteen United team of Aitken Harvey and Gordon Harland. In January, George Freeman (of United). one of the travelling Manitoba team; carried his laurels to Vancouver and left them there. In a University Extension Debate. Harry Crowe (Senior Stick at United. '41-42) was on the Manitoba team which defeated Iowa. We regret that at the time of preparing this report we have not the details of United's successes in Interfaculty debating; if our memory serves us correctly. United succeeded in upholding Mr. Jack Shaver's jinx of never winning an Interfaculty debate. Mr. William Dempsey. the chairman of Forums. organized and conducted another series of United College Forums. Since the introduction of the Forum in the fall of 1940. Mr. Dempsey has been able to secure as speakers an author. three members of the Manitoba Legislature. a former M.P. from Alberta. a provincial minister of the Crown, two instructors in public speaking. one professor. and one M.P. In addition to the forums headed by these speakers. there have' been two general discussions, one on the University military training scheme, and the DEBATING SOCIETY Back Row: Peggy Baragar, Jane Thompson, Doris Moscarella, Gren Yeo, .Peggv Baragar, Jane Thompson, Lionel Glazer, Irene Hodgson. Front Row: Ann Phelps, Bill Dempsey, Len Richardson, Prof. Leathers, Wally Maurer (pres.), Mae Kinney, John Freeman. Mitchell - COpp .Ltd. DIAMOND MERCHANTS JEWELLERS • OPTICIANS other on the Canadian war effort. The forum program this year was rather light; perhaps there were more powerful interests competing for the forum convener's attention. In any case, thanks are due Mr. Dempsey for making the Forum into an institution in the Debating Society and in the College. The Special Events Department, convened' by Len Richardson, staged a Salesman-Impromptu Speech competition in the second term. It was decided not to hold a Mock Parliament this year because of the academic and other burdens theoretically heaped upon the arched and serated back of the United College student. The Debating Society suffered a setback at the outset due to a temporary absence of leadership. The Debating Council was not as cohesive and as mutually imbued with purpose as I, it might have been. The first meeting should, no f t Portage at Hargrave Winnipeg, Man. doubt, be a game of Macready. The president personally stands convicted for any defects in his executive ability. There have been mutterings of disgust and contempt with respect to debating. That is unfortunate. One does not have to elucidate the sanctions, implications, need, potentialities of a debating society in an institution such as our United College. We have the executive rnachin- , ery, and some years of experience. On no ac' count should debating be permitted to falter or lapse. The president acknowledges the assistance received from members of his executive and council. from the honorary president, and from those members of the faculty who so kindly consented to judge'at several of the debates; and he wishes every success to the incoming Debating Society Co,uncil. W.' MAURER. Pictures Picture Framing * RICHARDSON BROS. GALLERIES 331 Main Street Phone 96851 Page Nineteen SOCIAL COMMITTEE Rack Row: Norm Trick. Muriel Harris. Jim Ashdown. Ray Bertrand. Bob McLean. John Freeman. Bill Gladstone. Front Row: Pat Howard. Bill Scurfield, Ramona Oland•.Jim Taylor (pres.). Prof. Ritcey, Dora Brown. Dean Ramsay. Virginia Warren. Social Committee Report Social eommittee 1?eport Theology certainly played its part well in student activity in the way JIM TAYLOR organized the social committee this year. His policy of inter-class co-operation for all the parties and dances threw a new light on the possibilities for social activity. One of the most successful dances of the first term was one sponsored by Class •44. Here the example was set for decorating. music. and organization. The big events of the year. however. were the skating party and the Grads' Farewell. • There were nearly seventy people skating at the skating party and more appeared at the dance afterwards. The evening proved to be highly entertaining. The Grads' Farewell was held at the Royal Alexandra Hotel and was attended by some two hundred students and professors. Dress was made optional due to war conditions. It was here that the last formal words were said to the graduating class. To Bob McLean. the succeeding president. we wish the best of luck in the year to come. ATHLETIC COUNCIL /3ack Row: Walter Zabolotny. Keith Morrison. Marge Schafer. Olga Kasinchuk, Margaret Winstanly. Embrie Cuddy. George Fowler. Margaret Nugent. Rhodes Tallin, Bill Scurfield. Front Row: Francis Zegil, Dave Downie. Ada Barclay. Doug Whittle (pres.) , Margaret Randall. Prof. Cragg. Vivian Beamish. Wally Maurer. Prof. Murray. Page Twenty laurels to United. Marg. Nugent retained the Ladies' University Tennis Championship. Bowling and Curling once again drew a flock of participants and all in all had a very successful year. I think that Downie actually collected most of the curling fees. To Doug Whittle and his host of helpers are due a lot of thanks and a lot of praise for leading UNITED through to such a fine year of athletics. Their co-operation with the Athletic Board of Control is also to be highly commended. To the incoming council we wish the best of everything. Athletic Report GftkLetic .J2eport For the past two years athletics have been curtailed somewhat. due to better use of the time and money as a part of Canada's war effort. Our own field-day was made impossible due to rain, but a few of our students did make a good showing at the Inter-Faculty Meet. The Junior soccer team. however, plowed through to victory. And when I say plowed, I mean plowed, for by October the campus was covered with snow. 'Then later on, the Junior hockey team, under the able management of Waldemar "Joe" Paknis, by dint of hard work and a lot of luck brought another set of championship • UNITED COLLEGE THEATRE Back Row: George Fowler. Dave Grose. Irma Hearn. Doris Scanes, Ida Patterson. John Graham. Bob Gordon. Emil Gillies. John Howes. Front Row: Mona Werier, Marjorie Freeman. Peggy Baragar (pres.), Dr. Thompson. Peter Gordon White, Ramona Oland. John Freeman. Francis Zegil. Theatre Report CCkeatre c:Report The United College Theatre had a very successful year indeed. After much deliberation on the part of the Play Reading Committee throughout the summer, two plays were selected for the annual one-act play night. One of these plays, a two-act comedy entitled "Statistically Yours," proved so enjoyable that the cast actually turned out at six-thirty one morning to rehearse. The other play, "The Singapore Spider," was so well presented that it was chosen and entered in the Annual Inter-Faculty Drama Festival in January. Stunt-night. the big night for amateurs at UNITED, had a very enthusiastic reception. Third Year, under the talented P. G. White. carried off first place, closely seconded by Collegiate. This was the final event of the Dramatic year at UNITED. Congratulations are due to Peggy Baragar for the way she stepped in to fill the presidency when John Howes was forced to resign. P. G. White and Ann Phelps gave invaluable assistance in directing the one-act plays. Speaking on behalf of the whole Dramatic Society, I wish to express _our appreciation to Dr. Thompson for his support and advice in his capacity of Honorary President of the Theatre. Page Twenty-one Page WASHINGTON ... NEW CENTRE OF THE WASHINGTON . . . NEW CENTRE OF THE WORLD ORBIT (Continued from page 15) ered every attempt at any political or controversial arguments. The same thing repeated itself at the Havana Conference in 1928. The change came with the inauguration of Franklin D. Roosevelt as President. Both Roosevelt and his Secretary of Stat~, Cordell Hull, were ardent internationalists as opposed to U.S. typical iso. Iationism. They, through their acts and speeches, created a new mood in Pan-Americanism. They instituted the "Good Neighbor" policy and they guaranteed that the Monroe Doctrine would be used only to defend smaller countries against aggression from without the hemisphere. The Lima Conference in 1938 brought the opinions of both sides to a true focus. The South Americans were still bound to the Old World by racial, linguistic, and cultural ties. Their trade cycle was European and would have to continue to be. Their exports naturally followed an East-West route rather than a North-South route. The South American countries didn't want any definite entanglements with U.S. until they found out which way the European crew were pulling. Their attitude was much the same as was that of U.S. towards the League of Nations. In addition, they pointed to what they termed "Yankee imperialism" in the Far East and said that in view of not too-ancient history they didn't feel very secure about the ultimate aims of the United States. They did co-operate in i 939 in the Declaration of Panama and the proclamation of a Neutrality Zone around the Western Hemisphere. It was fine with them as long as U.S. would do the patrolling. The dispute between U.S. and Mexico over the seizure of oilfields by the Mexican government was kind of yardstick for them. U.S. acted in a very tactful way and this made a very favorable impression on the other Pan-American countries. Following the war in 1939 there has been a great deal of foreign infiltration into South America, especially by the Japs and the Germans. After Japan and the United States went to war it was a great triumph in Rio in 1942 when Sumner Wells, the American Undersecretary of State, persuaded 19 out of 21 Southern American nations to break with the Axis powers. It showed that the U.S. hemispheric Page Twenty-two work has not been in vain. The South American countries want peace and security and are realizing that co-operation with U.S. is the only way to accomplish it whether in hemispheric matters or world matters. The question of Canada raises itself. She, 'of course, is in a peculiar position. She is culturally, economically and socially closer to U.S. than any other nation in the world. She has furthermore the advantage of belonging to the British Empire. President Roosevelt in a speech made in Kingston, Canada, in 1938, had this to say, "The Dominion of Canada is part of the sisterhood of the British Empire. I give to you the assurance that the people of the United States will not stand idly by if the domination of Canadian soil is threatned by any other Empire." This was taken to be an extension of the Monroe Doctrine. It is 'quite plain to both U.S. and Canada that the invasion of Canada would spell danger to the U.S It was then an act of security as well as an act of friendship that President Roosevelt was proposing at Kingston in 1938. Canada has come to depend militarily and economically on U.S: to a great degree and she must therefore be .prepared to let U.S. name the price, that is to say, determine the policy. The American policy in the Far East presents a sort of contrast to the "Good Neighbor" policy. It certainly doesn't uphold any eastern Monroe Doctrine which would mean for the East, "the East for Easterners." Rather it adopts an "Open Door" policy and claims a right to equal rights of free trade with the Eastern and European nations. It is really an about face from the Hemispheric Policy. The U.S. stake in the Far East dates from the beginning of her expansion period. Hawaii had been acquired in 1898, and tliis was the steppingstone to the East. Naturally, the extensive naval policy followed from 1880 to 1900 was a boost for Eastern supremacy. England, Rus- 'sia, Japan, and Germany were all busy trying to take a few slices from China in a wild struggle for what 'was left to imperialize in the world. "Teddy" was in the Navy Department and had a great influence even before he became President .and hence we have America's "Open Door Policy" in regard to China. This was immediately due to the fact that America saw two or three hundred million people in a backward state of civilization and who would have to modernize. If they were left alone and allowed to: cohere and then to evolve U.S. would have a huge marketto open up.' This is why U.S. has always insisted upon equal rights in connection with all efforts of European or Asiatic countries to subjugate China. There are, roughly speaking, three great periods of struggle in Far Eastern affairs. The first one is 1895 to 1'905, the second is from 1914 to 1922, and the third is from 1937 and is still continuing. The Sino-Japanese War in 1895 and the Russo-Japanese War in 1904-5, and the Boxer Rebellion in 1901 were the upsetting events in this period. U.S. didn't particularly mind the wars as long as both sides would continue to support an Open Door policy and not try to subjugate China to their own particular advantage. In this period U.S. policy was to try by diplomatic means to forestall any attempt to subjugate or divide up China. America would not go to war about it, as revealed in Secretary Hays' reply to Japan's direct inquiry in 1901. He said, "We are not at present prepared to attempt singly, or in concert with other powers, to enforce our views as to the integrity of China by any demonstration which could present a character of hostility to any other power." The second period of struggle in the Far East (from 1914-22) was the one in which U.S. came to really fear Japan and her intentions. During the Great War when France, Germany, and Britain were busy elsewhere, Japan stepped in and appropriated for herself the German-controlled province of Shantung and the German islands in the South Seas. She also forced China to sign the Twenty-one Demands in which Japan was given the leasehold of Darien-Port Arthur until 1997, the lease on the South Manchurian Railway until 2002, and the lease on the Antung-Mukden Railway until 2007, as well as many trade privileges in Manchuria. Japan clinched this by getting Great Britain, France, Russia, and Italy to sign a secret agreement in 1917 which gave her these after the war.. When U.S. discovered this secset treaty at Versailles she was powerless to prevent it. The Americans had to make a deal and in the Washington Naval Agreement of 1922 the ratio of capital ships and aircraft carriers was placed in a 5-5-3 ratio for England, U.S., and Japan, in return for which Japan gave back Shantung province to China and promised to preserve the status quo in the Pacific. The agreement ob' viously couldn't be enforced because Russia was .the only country close enough to oppose Japan, and Russia hadn't been at the conference. Up until 1931 China gradually grew in political power although troubled a great deal by internal as well as external agitation. In 1931 Japan 'invaded Manchuria and U.S. refused to recognize any treaty signed by Japan and China which changed the status quo as of the Nine Power Treaty. War broke out between China and Japan in 1937 and has continued ever since. What has been the U.S. attitude and policy? It was plain to even a blind man that Japan intended to subjugate China and to set up a regional economy which would shut out all other nations from Chinese trade. U.S. was at the cross-roads. The Americans couldn't withdraw entirely because of the evil effect on morale. The Japanese would take this as a surrender and the Philippines, Hawaii, and even U.S. would not be safe from Japanese imperialism. If the Americans remained in China and resisted the Japanese there would be an immediate war and certainly strong pressure would have been brought to bear against this by other European and Asiatic countries. The only thing left then was a "middle-of-the-road" policy, accompanied by diplomatic pressure and strong warnings to Japan. This was done and incidents such as the bombing of the U.S. gunboat Panay in 1937 brought profuse apology and a retribution payment of $2,214,007.36. To aid the Chinese in their fight a $25,000,000 loan was advanced by the Export-Import Bank in December, 1938. Unofficially, American technicians ran the Chinese war effort. What then was the U.S. interest in the Far East? Why did they fear Japan so much outside of her imperialistic aggression policy? The answer lay in the world market. Japan was slowly cutting away the U.S. market in many parts of the world. All in all, in the Far East U.S. seemed to pursue a rather short-sighted policy. I don't mean that U.S. should have acted differently diplomatically, but I do say she cut her throat economically and hence practically. From the Congressional Record, vol. 83, part 10. page 2045 comes the information that in 1936 and 1937 and part of 1938 about one-third of all the raw material used in Japanese steel industry came from the Page Twenty-three U.S. The export of pig iron increased from 88,000 tons in the first quarter of 1937 to 172,000 tons in the first quarter of 1938. In those years alone 80% of all oil imports in Japan were from the United States. In the first six months of 1938 Japan imported nearly $9,000,000 of aeroplanes and aeroplane engines from U.S. These all stopped in 1939 or dwindled down immensely, but it seems rather a shortsighted policy to bewail Japan's advances in China in one breath and to encourage sale of war .materials in the next breath. This was probably due to a general apathy on the part of the government and a desire to pacify big business by the New Deal, but in any case it was a short-sighted policy. The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, showed the extent to which Japan had prepared. No one could foresee events as they happened, but certainly U.S. and indeed the whole world knew of the Japanese aspirations in the Far East. The third type of American foreign policy is, of course, that one in connection with European affairs. The policy as laid down by the founding fathers was one of isolation. How then do we account for U.S. participation in the World War I? This is explainable, I think, in two ways: In the first place by 1917 U.S. economy had become so far bound up in Allied success that it depended upon an Allied victory. It wasn't fully realized until the Nye inquiry that the national economy had come to depend upon the success of the customers. In the second place there has always been a large amount of idealism about American politics. The love of liberty and freedom and the right to protect American interests has always been a rallying point for a great effort. The final clincher was the denial of the "freedom of the seas" by unrestricted German submarine warfare. This coupled with the loss of American lives in the sinking of the Sussex and the Lusitania finally brought America into the war in 1917. After the war the inevitable reaction set in and isolationism was the prevailing sentiment. The League of Nations was rejected by the Senate because it involved a foreign entanglement. Americans believed that they had fought a war for liberty, democracy, and freedom and that they weren't going to fight another away from home. They had their own economic and social difficulties at home to settle following the Depression and this consumed Page Twenty-four their money and time. The renewed isolationist stand was well expressed by Charles and Mary Beard in their book, "America in Mid-Passage," when they say: "Surrendering shop-worn reliance upon imperialistic pressure, money-lending and huckstering abroad, they t,urned to. the efficient, humanistic use of national resources and technical skills as a means of making a civilization on this continent more just, more stable, and more beautiful than anything yet realized." To be secure they wanted (a) a two-ocean navy, and (b) hemispheric security. Up until the period 1939-1942 the great majority of Americans believed that the walled-city policy of hemispheric security was a sufficient defence against any more world wars. I think also that war to many Americans was still a moral issue.' They had to go on an idealistic crusade to undertake anything really great. They sincerely believed that they could build up a collective scheme of hemispheric defence although they had withdrawn from the League of Nations which tried to do the same thingon a world-wide scale. In Ethiopia in 1935 the Americans saw the Hoare-Laval agreement which effectively sabotaged any League action against Italy. In Spain in 1938 they saw a non-intervention pact being just a sham for the powerful nations. They probably laughed up their sleeveswhen Chamberlain said on October 12, 1939, "It was not therefore with any vindictive purpose that we embarked on war, but simply in defence of freedom. It is not alone the freedom of the small nations that is at stake; there is also in jeopardy the peaceful existence of Great Britain, the Dominions, India, the rest of the British Empire, France and indeed all freedom- loving countries." Why then was this isolationist doctrine not sound in the face of the mess that the rest of the world was in? The first reason that it was unsound was to be found in the change in U.S. economy which had occurred during World War I. Before the war, U.S. had been a "debtor" nation within her economy based on "imports" from other countries. During the war U.S. was transformed and U.S. became a "creditor" nation which exported to the rest of the world. She has ever since 1914 been the greatest "creditor" nation in the world. What does this mean? It means that U.S. is dependent upon world trade if she is to have this type of economy. The problem then resolves itself down to: Can U.S.A. be politically isolated and yet have extensive economic world trade? The answer to this is, I think, an emphatic no! With new techniques and the development of communications U.S. cannot remain apart from the rest of the world if she bases her economy on a world trade. Why then did not more Americans realize that they couldn't be aloof to events in the rest of the world and that eventually they would have to solve them? In 1933 I think this realization came home. There was great opposition to any change from a strict isolation policy. In 1937 President Roosevelt made his famous "quarantine" speech in Chicago. In it he advocated that aggressor nations be quarantined to protect the health of the world community. It was easy to see that the country was radically split on the issue. The President and his group were trying to aid the AngloSaxon allies and the Chinese allies all they could. They did this by amending the Neutrality Laws at all possible angles. They were consistently opposed by the Mid-West bloc of .isolation sentiment headed by Wheeler, Nye, Vandenburg, Johnson, Shipstead, etc. This battle continued right up until December 7th, 1941, when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor. This act of war unified the nation overnight and accomplished what no other act could have done. The Isolationists did an about-face and a new American crusade was on. Even before this Roosevelt had been taking steady steps, each one more serious. His historic meeting with Prime Minister Winston Churchill in midAtlantic and the drawing up of the Atlantic Charter was quite contrary to isolationism. The charter itself if adhered to after World War II would do away with any isolationism. The real progress that President Roosevelt made was. of course, the evading of the-Neutrality Laws and the sending of supplies to the Allies. The whole existing trend in world affairs was towards some sort of world federation after the war. Will America fall in line and not try to repeat her mistake after the last war? Will Americans realize that modern techniques and modern communications have brought the world into one close unit? The future alone holds the answer. The American role in the future, I think, has been aptly summed up in President Roosevelt's message to Congress on January 6th, 1941. His words on this occasion were: "Our national policy isthis·: First, by an impressive expression of the public will and without regard to partisanship, we are committed to all-inclusive national defence. Second, we are committed to full support of all. those resolute peoples, everywhere, who are resisting aggression. Third, we are committed to the proposition that principles of morality and considerations for our own security will never permit us to acquiesce in a peace dictated by aggressors and sponsored by appeasers." Further on in this speech the President became even more explicit in his conditions for the future. These conditions were for a peace and they were as follows: 1. Freedom of speech and expression-everywhere .!n the world. 2. Freedom of religious worship---.everywhere in the world. 3. Freedom from want, through economic understanding--everywhere in the world. 4. Freedom from fear, through world-wide reduction of armaments - everywhere in the world. The President concluded: "Freedom means the supremacy of human rights everywhere. Our support goes to those who struggle to gain those rights or keep them. Our strength is in our unity of purpose. To that high concept there can be no end save victory." In this concept of the peace and the future the President took up the inheritance of Woodrow Wilson but didn't offer any new League of Nations. He proclaimed simply that American concepts of freedom must become world-wide. His repetition of the phrase"everywhere in the world" showed that the United States had realized its position in the world and that never again would it become flatly isolationist. The universal tone used throughout this speech was perhaps the best indication of any future U.S. role in world affairs. There are admittedly some dangers and drawbacks to any such role. Sprinkled through these and other isolationist bodies are coldblooded business men who when they envisage . the future of a free world both economically and politically are appalled. However, in spite of these hindrances it is apparent that America sees its new world role and that it is intent on acting on a world-wide plan in the universal interest. Page twenty-five (jraJualion The Collegiate Graduation On the evening of Friday, May 9, one week before the close of classes, the closing exercises Collegiate department were held in Westminster United Church. In honor of the 173 members of Grades XI and XII, a large audience consisting of parents, friends, former students, and members of the College faculty and board was in attendance. The program was. under the chairmanship of Mr. L. J. Reycraft, K.C., chairman of the Board of Regents. It was opened by an Invocation given by Rev. J. E. Jones, chairman of the Winnipeg Presbytery. Following an address of welcome by the principal, Dr. W. C. Graham, the two valedictories were given, that for Grade XI by Angus Stone and that for Grade XII by Emil Gillies. The Collegiate Glee Club, under the direction of Miss Ida Wilkinson, sang two numbers. The address to the graduating classes was given by Rev. Dr. E. M. Howse, pastor of Westminster Church. Following the presentation of awards and certificates, the work of the year in the Collegiate department was reviewed by Dean C. N. Halstead. At the conclusion of the program, Colin McGillivray, president of the Collegiate student body, presented to the College a large framed picture of the graduating classes. An informal reception was held in the church hall immediately after the regular program had ended. Under the direction of the Registrar, Mr. A. S. Cununings, the following awards were made to those who qualified. The presentations were made by the following persons: Mr. H. C. Ashdown, of the Board of Regents; Miss J. May Carter, principal of the Riverbend School for Girls; Prof. O. T. Anderson, Dean of Arts and Science; Rev. S. C. Stu!!";, chairman of the Religious Education Council of the Manitoba Conference. RECOGNITION OF MERIT AWARDS GRADE XII (Entire Class) Joseph A. D'Angelo Bernice B. Warne Sybella Williams Grade XI John Edward Shanks Benjamin Hogg Gwendolyn M. Young Stephen Ostapowich GRADE XI Georgina N. McLean GRADE XII (By Sections) Section 1: Patricia Wayling Section 2: Margaret J. Robertson Section 3: M. Jean McLean Sybella M. Williams Joe D'An~elo Grade XII SPECIAL AWARD-For greatest improvement in academic studies during the year: Stanley Hall. HONORS SOCIETY CERTIFICATES EXECUTIVE CERTIFICATES Joseph A. D'Angelo Joan K. Herd Benjamin Hogg Olia Oriel Kostyniuk 111. Jean McLean Georgina N. McLean Stephen Ostapowich Margaret J. Robertson Olga Salamandyk Dorothy M. Scott J. Edward Shanks Rossme A. Sterling Berenice B. Warne . Patricia Wayling Sybella M. Williams Gwendolyn M. Young Mary Camsell Joseph A. D'Angelo Muriel B. Dartnell Raymond L. Duthoit Marjorie D. Freeman e Vernon rnon H. Halstead Benjamin Hogg }<'ranklin L. Kirk Colin A. McGillivray Ronald J. Riddell Dorothy M. Scott G. Angus Stone G. Rhodes Tallin Norman R. Trick Gladys K. Walker Berenice B. Warne Patricia Wayling Donald L. Wright YOUTH LEADERSHIP TRAINING CERTIFICATES were awarded to sixty-five students of the' Collegiate department for studies taken during the year, in S.C.M. groups, on The Sermon on the Mount. H. G. HARVEY SMITH BENJAMIN C. PARKER, K.C. B. STUART PARKER PARKER, SMITH & PARKER BARRISTERS AND SOLICITORS THE CANADIAN BANK OF COMMERCE CHAMBERS WINNIPEG MANITOBA Page Twenty-six "CEASE TO BE FOOLS!" (Continued from page 8) There is no attempt on the part of any section of the Canadian people to deny the necessity for stringent regulations and curtailment of liberties at this time. The seriousness of our situation. the realization. daily being more clearly forced upon us. that we are involved in alife and .death struggle. is sufficient to insure the co-operation of all Canadians in every reasonable action. The Defence of Canada Regulations. 65 in number. deal with every phase of our national life. For the most part they are conceded to be necessary and desirable for our protection in time of war. but sections 21. 22. 39. 39A. 39B. 39C and 62 have given rise to much debate as being unnecessary restrictions of freedom of speech. assembly and press. and our traditional right of free and open trial. That there are grounds for this belief can be established by a critical examination of these particular sections of the Act. In the nature of an essay such as this. where we are concerned mainly. and indeed solely. with the examination. the position. and the maintenance of Freedom of Speech in Canada. it is manifestly impossible to give the searching criticism of the regulations of the Defence of Canada Act permissible in a brief intended for presentation by a Civil Liberties Association. Nevertheless. within the limits of our subject and space. those parts of the regulations bearing most heavily upon freedom of speech must be examined. Section 21. which deals with restriction and detention orders. states that: 21. (1) The Minister of Justice. if satisfied that with a view to preventing any particular person from acting in any manner prejudicial to the public safety or the safety of the State it is necessary so to do. may. notwithstanding anything in these Regulations, make an order: (a) prohibiting or restricting, the possession or use by that person of any specified articles; (b) imposing upon him such restrictions as may be specified in the order in respect of his employment or business. in respect of his movements or place of ~esidence, in respect of his association or communication with other persons. or in respect of his activities in relation to the dissemination of news or the propagation of opinions; (c) directing that he be detained in such place. and under such conditions. as the Minister of Justice may from time to time determine; and any person shall, while detained by virtue of an order made under this paragraph. be deemed to be in legal custody. It is almost unnecessary to point out the extremely broad interpretation which can be put on this regulation. The restrictions of "specified articles employment ... business ... move-ments place of residence ... association or communication with other persons" have all the authoritarian pressure-value of medieval excommunication. and could be just 'as effective as that institution of the Dark Ages in, forcing a , citizen to alter his opinions. Far more serious are the restrictions which follow. If the subject is to be prevented from the Jree expression of opinion. then our regulations become a direct antithesis of our professed war aims. Direct and deliberate mis-statement of fact must be dealt with as an act against the. safety of the State. this no victory-minded citizen will deny. There is. however. a very wide chasm separating one who gives voice to a misstatement of fact and one who airs his views or states his opinions. The most disturbing feature of the regulations. however. and the one of gravest import. is the provision of internment without trial. Should a person imprisoned be "aggrieved" by such action. the following course is open to him. He may lodge his objection with an "advisory committee" of three persons appointed by the Minister of Justice. Then, "as soon as possible after detention ... the person against whom the order is made shall in every case be informed of the general grounds on which he is detained." It is worthy of notice that, under the Regulations. the suspect need not be informed of the charges (or suspicions) against him at the time of being taken into custody. but only "as soon as possible after detention." and even then he need only "be informed of the general grounds on which he is detained." (Italics my own.) Even the layman will realize that appearance before an advisory committee (after an indefinite period of imprisonment) constitutes no proper substitute for the right of a trial in a court of law. where a man may be sent to prison only after "the lawful judgment of his peers and by the laws of the land." The discrepancy is further emphasized by subsection 8 of Regulation 22 concerning advisory committees. which provides that the chairman shall furnish the "objector" with "as full particulars of the reasons for such orders as in the opinion of the chairman the circumstances permit." On what may be partial information. then. the objector must , Page Twenty-seven prepare his defence. That the defence so prepared may be totally inadequate is obvious when we consider that "such particulars shall be further supplemented by the committee at the hear- . inq," Even here it is not incumbent upon the committee to divulge the complete accusation against the internee but only, "all such further particulars as it (the committee) shall deem' necessary and advisable." Notwithstanding all that has been stated thus far. one might feel that the existence of such a body as the advisory committee does constitute a guarantee against possible abuses in the administration of the Regulations by the Minister of Justice. But is such the case? Upon further examination of Regulation 22 we find that the advisory committee itself need not have full knowledge of the case under review. The Minister is required to "put before the committee all the information about such person available to the Minister except such as is not in the public interest to disclose." That the advisory committee investigation does not by any means constitute a concluding survey of the case is admitted in subsection 11 of Regulation 22. where it is stated that the Minister of Justice may refer the recommendations of the advisory committee to the Commissioner of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police "in order that the latter may have an opportunity of putting such further material as he may desire before the Minister." Paragraph 14 provides what might be considered the final answer to the objections of a person taken into custody. It reads. "The Minister of Justice may make further rules . as to the manner in which objections against an order as aforesaid may be made and disposed of." As the Regulations now stand. then. a free citizen of the Dominion of Canada may be imprisoned if •. in the opinion of the Minister of Justice. such action is necessary to "prevent" that citizen "from acting in any manner prejudicial to the public safety or the safety of the State." The citizen, without knowledge of the case made again him. may appeal for an investigation (it cannot be called a 'trial) of his case. but the onus of proving his innocence lies with the prisoner.· The Regulations make no provision for a further appeal to any superior body or court of law, nor can' the. writ of habeas corpus be.employed to test the legality of the . imprisonment.. Page Twenty-eight Since the amendments to the Regulations in July. 1941. the Minister of Justice has been required to report to Parliament the number of persons detained and the number of cases in which the Minister declined to.follow the advice of his advisory committee. Though undoubtedly of some value in that the representatives of the people are given knowledge of the extent. if not the nature. of the activities of the Minister under the Regulations, it is difficult to see how this amendment safeguards the rights of individuals in specific cases. The far-reaching implications of Regulations 21 and 22, as outlined above. have affected the administration of the entire Defence of Canada Regulations. In one case. after the conviction of two men was quashed by the Court of Appeal, they were, immediately after their release. detained and interned under the provisions of Regulation 21.@ Even apart from the two Regulations dealt with, freedom of speech and of the press is severely endangered. For example. if action is taken under the vague and undefined terminology of Regulations 39, 39A. 39B, and 39C (covering disaffection; printing; publishing; and illegal organizations) the Crown. by authority of Regulation 63. may elect to proceed either by indictment or by summary trial. If the latter, the penalties involved are comparatively light, viz., maximum sentence of one year or $500.00 fine. or both. However. all such cases tried summarily deprive the persons accused of the right to elect a trial by jury and limit their appeal to a re-hearing before a county judge. If, on the other hand. the Crown elects to proceed by indictment, the accused may exercise his right to request trial by jury and the privilege of making an appeal to the higher courts, but the high maximum penalty involved is five years' imprisonment or a $5,000.00 fine, or both. It is worthy of note that the penalties in either case are more than double those thought necessary for public safety in Great Britain. where the enemy at certain points is no farther than some 21 miles away. It is disturbing, also. when we read that one of the greatest safeguards of justice. an open and public trial, can be removed by the provision in Regulation number 62 for a secret trial. @F. A. Brewin, "Civil Liberties in Canada During . Wartime," The Bill of Rights Review. Winter. 1941 . page 115. A realization of the extremes to which a government so minded might go in suppressing freedom of speech and press can be gained when the following facts are considered. By the provisions of the Defence of Canada Regulations all means of communication may be .controlled by the government. and complete censorship enforced. Newspapers may be restrained from going into print. Persons may be interned for no other cause than the possession ofa book which contains ill-defined "prohibited matter" or "any adverse or unfavorable statement. report. or opinion likely to prejudice the defence of Canada or the official prosecution of the war." In truth the War Measures Act and the Defence of Canada Regulations provide every necessary instrument for the establishment of absolutism and totalitarianism in Canada. The German Reichstag surrendered no greater power to its Dictator in 1933 than our Parliament surrendered to the Governor-in-Council in 1939. The sole safeguard of our democracy is the fact that we still have liberal-minded leaders at the head of our government. There is no guarantee that their opposites will not arise. Should such an event occur (and have we not witnessed its repeated occurrence in the years since 1918 ?) the legal framework for dictatorship is ready to hand in Canada: freedom of criticism is gone; broadcasting. public meetings. and publications are subject to rigid control; the very expression of opinion in the studies of the classroom could be completely suppressed by the application of the Censorship Regulations as they now stand. The machinery for the most comprehensive and far-reaching regimentation of thought is here ... who is to say that we do not have in our society a hand capable of setting that machinery in motion? V-The Maintenance of Free Speech Since we have recognized the danger of losing our civil liberties (and in point of fact the Canadian Government has. in a rather wholesale manner. delegated legislative power to the Cabinet) the pertinent question now becomes. "What are the citizens of Canada doing to protect their Civil Rights?" While a warning should be given against springing too rapidly to the conclusion that the spirit and practice of Democracy have been substantially lost. it is clear that grave dangers lurk in the existence of these emergency powers and regulations. The Canadian Government has in many ways acted with moderation and good sense. The danger lies less in present injustices than in the fear that what is done in the present. as an emergency. may become a matter of settled habit. Now that the panic of the outbreak of the war has had time to die down. the question is being asked. "Why are these regulations necessary? Why should we. in the name of a war for freedom. be asked to give up the freedom which is absolutely indispensible to our democracythe freedom of speech?" Serious-minded people are asking what good purpose can be achieved by holding the threat of the concentration camp over the heads of people who offer constructive criticism. That criticism is necessary. and cannot be evaded. regulations or no regulations. is becoming increasingly evident. For example. the Canadian Legion. whose patriotism no man can deny. recently had this editorial in their newspaper. "The Legionary": "However deeply the veterans of Canada may feel the need for an intensified war effort. it is only by resolute action at the top that the whole people can be fully stirred to its highest achievement. It is for the Dominion Government and Parliament-the chosen leaders of the people--to inspire by their actions a desire in Canadian men and women to serve to the very limit of their endurance... Our government must be the very spearhead of our war effort. If they should fail. the nation will fail. too. With that fact in mind the Canadian Legion ... has consistently endeavoured to assist the Dominion authorities to the utmost of its capability... But backing and assisting the authorities. whether in war or peace. in no sense means that the Legion relinquishes its right to criticize or condemn. when in its judgment specific actions. or the lack of them. warrant criticism or condemnation."(!) The Legion undoubtedly means what it says. for on March 7. 1942. the District Zone Council in Victoria took the unusual. and in view of the Regulations. somewhat bold step of calling a mass meeting to protest against what they considered dangerous delay on the part of the Government in removing Japanese from our vulnerable west coast. Thousa,nds of people attended the meeting. and protested that three months had elapsed since Pearl Harbour-"three months during which Japan has had time to take Hong Kong. Siam. Malaya. Borneo. Celebes. Sumatra. Timor. Java and most of the Philippines. Yet the Canadian Government has not had the time to arrange for the transfer of CVThe Legionary. March. 1942. page 17. \ Page Twenty-nine some 20,000 Japanese a few hundred miles Into the interior, where they would be out of harm's way." It is significant that only two days after the meeting the Japanese in British Columbia were ordered to turn in their cars, radios, and guns, and arrangements for their removal were -, speeded up. The Legion says, "This is a clearcut case of patriotic citizens exercising their democratic rights under the constitution." In Germany, where the theory of infallibility on the part of the Fuhrer is inherent in the Nazi creed, it may be possible to get people to suspend all criticism of their leader. But in this country the people are not inclined to heroworshipping, any more than they are in Britain, where even the well-loved Churchill has to submit to outspoken criticism. Only by an assumption of infallibility can the Government justify its action in endeavouring to shut off the voice of the people. If, after having given to the Government all the support it has asked for, and unlimited power to act in any emergency, the people become dissatisfied at the progress being made, they are forced to fall back on their democratic privileges and demand satisfaction. Have we still a democracy if they can be arrested for so doing? The question is worrying more and more people as the war proceeds. The Regulations were passed supposedly to guard us against Communists and fifth-columnists and saboteurs, but the people are wondering if we are in any real danger from these people. It is difficult to see what service a loud-mouthed Communist or a sly defeatist could render to the enemy which would be half so valuable as the process for synthetic rubber which the great and powerful Standard Oil Company has been charged, before the Senate Investigating Committee at Washington, with giving or selling to Germany. True, that instance occurred in the United States, but there are many uneasy consciences over the great supplies that went East from Canada, in the name of good business, right up until Japan's attack on Pearl Harbour. In the Manitoba Legislature on March 26, 1942, Mr. L. St. G. Stubbs introduced a Bill to . repeal Section 3 from the Public Office Disqualification Act, 1940, which debars from holding office anyone who has been detained under the Defence of Canada Regulations. Mr. Stubbs pointed out that he did not ask deletion 'of Section 2 which bars from office anyone CONVICTED Page Thirty under Defence Regulations; all he sought was the abolition of Section 3 which made the right to hold office the whim of one individual. Mr. Stubbs pointed out how this section of the Act could be used to remove men from office: "If the Attorney-General wished to get me out of office all he would have to do would be to have an officer detain me, and ipso facto I would be out of office."® Mr. Stubbs' Bill was defeated 35 to 11, the Attorney-General of the Province taking the stand that while the Act could only be justified because of the existence of the Defence of Canada Regulations, and the assumption that we were in deadly danger, he could not agree to repeal while the Defence Regulations were still in force. It therefore appears -that if the people tlfManitoba wish to secure relief from the Manitoba Act they must carry the fight first against the Defence Regulations upon which it is based. But there is a crying need for more positive action from other sections of the community. The legal profession, for example, has not yet recognized the important part it might play in the same cause. There is a new and distinct field of law emerging, that of civil rights, and it is just as important as the older fields, such as administrative law, labor law, tax law, and so on. There has, as yet, been no attempt on the part of Law Schools to provide adequate training in this field, where it is becoming apparent expert services are required. This was pointed out in the Bill of Rights Review as long ago as '1940, and again in 1941, where Harry Shulman, Professor of Law at Yale University, and Herbert A. Fierst, prominent member of the New York Bar, point out: "The terrifying assaults on liberty require us to look carefully to our foundations. We cannot take our 'cherished liberties' for granted! The Law Schools must not be content with graduating men who are merely qualified to make a living at their craft. They must seek to develop in their students bases for informed and wise action with reference to the policy which is so distinctive of our order (and in the preservation of which they play an important role)-liberty... Direct instances of the lawyer's strategic position are evident when ®The Winnipeg Free Press, Friday, March 27. 1942. SALLY PERRIN 1 In Memoriam -- Sally Perrin riuUl-- ~ully Jrrrtu Class '44 sustained a gr-eat loss in. the sudden tragic death of Sally Perrin in an aeroplane accident at Stevenson Field on Saturday, June 27. It is not only a loss to our class, but to our whole College, for Sally was known and endeared to us all. In the two years she has been at United, Sally has shown that she could do her share and more. Charming and vivacious, she seemed to overflow with fun and pep. Her passing will take something away from our halls. The staff of Vox joins with innumerable other friends in extending to the members of her family our most sincere sympathy and understanding in their recent bereavement. he acts as legislator, prosecutor, defender, or judge."@ The Church (i.e., all organized religion in Canada) could: also be subjected 'to the same criticism that has been directed at Law. Though outstanding and indeed"brilliant service has been rendered by individuals, the Church has not yet recognized the need for developing a policy in the matter of freedom of speech. It is natural that the Church should choose its way carefully, but again the memory of the closed churches and martyred ministers of Germany rises in warning. There is a great awakening on the part of the people to the value of things spirit- @"Teaching Civil Liberties in Law Schools," by H. Shulman and H. A. Fierst. Bill of Rights Review, Winter. 1941. For A Superior Haircut BOULEVARD BARBER SHOP FIRST CLASS BARBERS 477 Portage Avenue Phone 37496 (Just West of the Mall Hotel) ual. Perhaps this is the opportunity the Church has been waiting for to bring Christianity as a basic principle in our democracy before the people. Only the most courageous action on the part of public-spirited citizens. who can throw the full weight of such prestige as they possess into the fight, will avail to arouse the nation as a whole to the value of the treasure now slip- .ping. from their fingers. As John Milton so bluntly says, "You. therefore. who wish to remain free. either instantly be wise. or as soon as possible cease to be fools. "@J @!John Milton, "The Second Defence of the People of England, 1654." Keep a healthy standing balance in your savings account. THE ROYAL BANK OF CANADA Page Thirty-one ALUMNI· The c ALUMNI NOTES ege is endeavoring to compile as complete a list as possible of all former and present students of the college who have enlisted in any of the active services. The task is not an easy one. It calls for the assistance of all members and friends of the college. If. therefore, you learn of any names which may not have already been recorded. please notify either the Registrar of the college or the Secretary of the United College Graduates' Association. Either of these persons or the administration office, Room 201, will furnish' you with cards for filing the data. A souvenir of unique interest to early graduates was recently received by Dr. G. B. King from the family of the late Rev. Dr. W. R. Hughes of Hamilton. Onto Dr. Hughes. who died last December. was a Wesley graduate and a pioneer Manitoba pastor. It is a paper table napkin from the "First Wesley College Supper. 1893," and bears the following twenty-two signatures written in pencil: H. H. Ap:new. B. W. Allison, 1. F. Brooks. J. H. Burrow. R. A. Clement. J. P. Clinton. Chas. H. Cross. H. V_ Fieldhouse, W. R. Hughes. T. J. Johnston. H. J. Kinley. Chas. H. Lawfords, G. W, Lewis. T. J. McCrossan. W. J. Parr. V. H. Rust. A. E. Smith. J. R. Stinson. J. C. Switzer. T. J. Watts. E. Woodhull. and J. S. Woodsworth. At the Theological Convocation of United College held on April 16. the honorary degree of Doctor of Divinity was conferred on Rev. P. N. Murray, '09, of Shoal Lake; on Rev. E. Blatchford Ball, '13. of Humboldt, Sask.: and on Rev. W. E. Donnelly of Young United Church. Winnipeg. Rev. John Jackson. of LaRiviere. Man .• was elected to the presidency of Manitoba Conference of the United Church at its annual meeting held in Young Church during the first week of June. Wesley McCurdy, '00. Vice-President and Publisher of The Winnipeg Tribune. was elected president of the Canadian Daily Newspapers Association at the annual meeting in Toronto on April 17. • G. H. Jackson. '16. was elected president of the Canukeena Club for 1942-43 at the annual meeting on May 18. J. N. Clarke. '20. on June 15 :was elected president of Manitoba Missionary Association of the missionary convention of the Churches of Christ held in the Home Street church. Major William Line. lecturer in Science at Wesley College in 1925-26, and former professor of psychology at the University of Toronto, on June 9 was appointed director of army personnel selection with the rank of acting- colonel. Captain H. Douglas Woods. formerly head of the Economics department at United College, and now a niember of the Personnel Selection Bureau. has recently returned with his family to Winnipeg. Captain Woods spent several weeks in Ottawa, following a year in the Maritimes with the Fifth Division Signallers. At the annual meeting ofthe Parliamentary Press Gallery on February 1. Burton T. Richardson, '29. was elected secretary-treasurer. Mr. Richardson, who was senior stick in his final year. is the Ottawa correspondent of the Winnipeg Free Press whose articles appevr almost daily under the initials "B.T.R." THE ASSAULT (Continued from page 17) , You jumped up and sensed a rough core of hate infusing your body with hardness. He .looked about forty and he was drinking from abottle, You stood quietly for a moment watching him grimace after each drink and then grin ridiculously at you. Hava ceegar brother, he said, and fumbled in a .pocket; several cigars fell to the pav.ement. He stared at them dully and grinned , again. Your fists clenched themselves until the nails pierced the palms. You lifted them high and smashed them into his face. The bottle shattered and whiskey spattered you and you could feel the sting of it on your lips. Your tongue searched the rawness of them and flicked out several small pieces of glass. His face was red with blood and the mouth and teeth a sodden red pulp and he burbled something but only foam came through the blood. His eyes looked surprised and pleading. You battered at him again and again until he crumpel to the road and lay there. You stood over him with your hands Page Thirty-two Page Thirtq-turo cut. and your breath coming painfully and heavily and you were sobbing. As you stumbled away the words drummed themselves into your mind, a boy it's a boy, . hava ceegar brother, it's a boy, and you saw the doctor hesitate momentarily to brace himself before he told you. It's a boy brother, hava ceegar, and then you saw the doctor walking towards you, the sharp click of his heels rattling down the corridors and he was saying, I'm sorry, we did everything, and you saying yes I understand, yes I understand, and the doctor saying perhaps you would like to go in, and inside you saw her masked in grey like a statue with the slightest lines of agony about her blue lips and you stared and backed out of the room, and the doctor was there saying it was a boy but ... I am-'-well ... you realize everything known to medical science was . . . I understand thanks, yes, I understand, and everything seemed clear and matter-of-fact and well-ordered. And then stumbling down the corridor and colliding with someone, and then down the stairs and tripping over the matting and falling against the stone rail and onto the street. ,r f q\ --- 'I
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|Title||Vox 1942 July|
|Description||The July 1942 edition of Vox.|
CHANCELLOR'S PRIZE SHORT STORY
By JOHN H. HOWES
JULY, 1942 JULY, 194%
Vol. XV-No.3 VOX
PUBLISHED BY THE UNDERGRADUATES
AND GRADUATES OF UNITED COLLEGE
FREEDOM OF SPEECH PRIZE ESSAY
By PETER GORDON WHITE
The Right Apparel and Aeeessories
For Girls and Men of ~ollegeAge
EATON'S has always paid close attention to the needs of college men
and college girls ... and never more so than now. Whatever you need in the
way of smart wearables, EATON'S is the place to make your choice ...
from complete assortments of the smartest styles. And EATON VALUES
are decidedly in your favor, too.
~~T. EATON Cc?'MITED
A Complete Textbook Service
All books used in the University or Affiliated Colleges are
regularly kept in stock at the Book Department. Orders for
special books are given speedy attention.
The Book Department is not a private enterprise; it is owned
and operated directly by the University.
Prices are always the lowest it is possible to make them.
University of Manitoba
Broadway Bldg., Osbome St. Arts Bldg., Fort Garry
"VOX" PUBLICATION OF UNITED COLLEGE UNDERGRADUATES AND GRADUATES
Subscription and Advertising Rates on Application
No.3, Vol. XV
DR. A. R. M. LOWER
Art Editor: Circulation Manager:
PETER GORDON WHITE DORIS SCANES PETER GORDON WlllTE Alumni Editor: DEAN A. D. LONGMAN
Bulletin Board Editors: MINA WOODHEAD, RON RIDDELL
Theology: KEN CASH Third Year: KAY ROWLETTE
Fourth Year: DORIS SCANES Second Year: RUSS WALLACE
First Year: ALEX LYONS
Collegiate: BILL GLADSTONE, RON RIDDELL, M. DOUGLAS, ZOE VLASSIS
EDITORIAL _ JOHN FREEMAN 2
FREEDOM OF SPEECH PRIZE ESSAy...... . PETER GORDON WHITE ..... 5 PETER GORDON WASHINGTON: NEW CENTRE OF THE WORLD ORBIT DOUG. SUMNER 14
CHANCELLOR'S PRIZE STORY JOHN H. HOWES 16
ON THE GOLF LINKS , , PAT HOWARD 3
FRIENDSHIP , : _ : JOHN FREEMAN 3
UNITED COLLEGE STUDENT COUNCIL :,.: :.: _._ . _ ,........ 9
GRADUATES '42 1." • ,................................ 10
COLLEGIATE GRADUATION ...•.......;•......- :. ., :_ c....................... 26
SUB-COMMITTEE REPORTS , : ;:-..~ : _.• :._ : ;........................... 18
SALLY PERRIN .-- _ -:;..: _.:_ _..: ~ 31
ALUMNI NOTES ,- ,.;,..; ; _ _..................... 32
What Are We Fighting For? What: ATe We " WHAT ARE WE FIGHTING FOR? That is the question that has been
and should be of great concern to all of us who are engaged in this
present struggle. It should not be an issue to be avoided, for it involves
the very lives of many of us. To that question there are two general answers.
The first claims we are fighting for our very lives against the aggressor; that this
is a war of self-defence. The second claims that we are fighting for "The
Democratic Way of Life."
At first these two answers may seem unrelated, but a closer examination
reveals that the second is merely an extension of the first. It claims that we are
fighting for far more than our physical lives-for we could save those by
becoming ardent Nazis-in fact we are struggling to protect our ideal of society.
At this point we must ask, "Just what is this 'ideal' of society?"
-Is it a society that, knowing the disruptive influence of liquor on not only
itself as a whole but also on the individual family within it, nevertheless condones
and encourages its use? This twist of mind has so firmly gripped us that
often liquor has had preference over clothes for the refugees since the problem of
shipping space arose. Nothing need be said of the damage it can do to a home and
its happiness when liquor takes hold of one or both of the parents. Do we put
up with this because "people will get it anyway" and "the government needs
Or is it a society that puts up with housing conditions such as exist in parts
of our own city of Winnipeg? I speak of small, dirty houses, where there is not
adequate sanitation; I speak of houses where more than one family is crowded
into insufficient space; I speak of houses with such small yards that the children
have to play on the streets ; I speak of houses where the parents are away working
all the time and the children have no supervision. Is that what we are trying to
Is it a society that allows such low wages to its labour that many children
have to go out and work for their living before they have received sufficient
education for their needs and capacities? Is it a society that can watch the millionaire
in his limousine and the delivery boy working at fifteen cents an hour, and
yet do nothing? Is it a society that lets food be destroyed to keep the price up
while there are undernourished children in it? In short, is it a society with so
much of Liberalism's "Tolerance" that men will no longer try to correct evils?
In other words, is it society as we see it now, or as we hope to see it, where every
man has an opportunity to develop 'to the fullest of his own capacities, and where
detriments are put out of the reach of the weak?
That is what we must remember when we talk of and plan for Post-War
Reconstruction; namely, that we are trying to build a better world than has
ever been, so that we may remove the possibility of war.
-JOHN FREEMAN Page Two -JOHN * * *
* * * * *
On the Golf Links ... On tke Golf -Cinks ...
The silhouette of trees against a purple sky,
The murmur of a green-blue stream,
The rapture, wonder, of a single shining star,
The melody of crickets, blended with the sigh
That comes unbidden with the dream
So rudely shattered-for they've missed the last street car.
By PAT HOWARD
On Friendship ... On g;.ienJskip . . .
A rose, though sweetest ever found,
Yet withers and drops headlong to the ground;
And snow, though firm and thickly packed,
Soon melts and trickles through the earth it cracked;
The stream, that flows so deep in Spring,
By Summer's end o'er stones has ceased to sing;
And music rising from the lark
Is silenced by the overwhelming dark.
Does Friendship like these lovely things
Dissolve away and flee on Time's o By JOHN FREEMAN Page Three ld wings?
By JOHN FREEMAN
ff /J Cease to be Fools! Cease
Winner of ,the prize estqblished at the University for ]an]
essay on The Maintenance of Free Speech in ]C:mada.
* * * *
By PETER GORDON WHITE
"THESE are the times that try men's souls.
The summer soldier and the sunshine
patriot, will, in this crisis, shrink from
. the service of their country: but he that stands it
now deserves the love and thanks of every man
and woman. Tyranny, like Hell, is not easily
conquered; yet we have this consolation with us
-the harder the conflict the more glorious the
triumph. 'What we attain too cheap we esteem
too lightly; it is dearness only that gives everything
its value. Heaven knows how to put a
proper price upon its goods. and it would be
strange indeed if so celestial an article as FREEDOM
should not be highly rated. "